http://freejobseeker.com/sbi-clerical-cadre-recruitment-2017-apply-online/?share=twitter In the last post I spoke about the newish LoRa modulation that is taking the LPWAN (low-power wide area network) by storm. In this post I describe LoRaWAN, a protocol created by the LoRa Alliance that uses LoRa as its transport medium.
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- LoRaWAN is a server-side implementation of a multiple access protocol designed to minimize collisions with a large number of endpoints. It requires a server application to run the MAC functions over a network connection.
- LoRaWAN network architecture is typically laid out in a star-of-stars topology in which gateways are a transparent bridge relaying messages between end-devices and a central network server in the backend.
- Customer logic is built into the network server
- It is designed primarily for uplink-only applications with many endpoints, or applications where only a few downlink messages are required (limited either by application or by number of endpoints)
- Gateways within the same network require synchronization
- Communication between end-devices and gateways is spread out on different frequency channels and data rates. The selection of the data rate is a trade-off between communication range and message duration.
- Different data rates do not interfere with each other and create a set of “virtual” channels increasing the capacity of the gateway.
- The LoRaWAN network server is manages the data rate and RF output for each end-device individually by means of an adaptive data rate (ADR) scheme that is typically updated once every 24 hours
- Multiple layers of security/encryption (EUI64 on network level and application level and EUI128 device specific key)
- AES CCM (128-bit) for encryption and authentication
- Works within the confines of the ETSI 1% and 10% duty cycle on transmission time in the 868 bands
- Draft revision of class B for downlink nodes that can poll for a beacon every 1s to 128s (Engineering prototypes available now using LMiC from IBM) Beacon period is 128s (2^n) where n is 0 to 7
- Antenna diversity because all gateway’s listen to the same uplink channels
http://karenwritesromance.com/?bioeier=strategia-opzioni-binarie-supporti-e-resistenze&73e=8f There are several manufacturers for the Transceiver Modules and for the Gateways. This is in anyway an extensive list, it is just a small sample of what’s available for designers (as of 14/09/2016).
- Microchip LoRa/LoRaWAN RN2483 LoRa modem
- Laird RM1xx LoRa/LoRaWAN/BLE modem
- Multitech mDot LoRaWAN modem
- IMST IM880A-L LoRa/LoRaWAN modem
- Nemeus MM002 LoRa/LoRaWAN modem
- Link Labs LL-RLP-20 LoRaWAN modem
- Adeunis LO868 LoRaWAN modem
- HopeRF RFM95 LoRa modem
- Kerlink IoT Station
- Link Labs BS-8 LoRa Gateway
- Multitech Conduit+
- Cisco IR910
- Raspberry Pi + add-on cards
A private initiative started in the summer of 2015 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, that looked to interconnect the city in just 6 weeks. They did it. Read here how.
” We are a global community of more than 2000 people over 40 countries building a global Internet of Things data network.”